Since its Grand Opening in July of 2012, Singapore’s Gardens by the Bay is growing into a major outdoor recreation destination. This achievement in sustainable engineering and energy efficiency is a testament to the continuing effectiveness of the “green” PENETRON system and its core crystalline waterproofing technology.
Spread over 101 hectares (250 acres) and built entirely on reclaimed land, Gardens is a showcase and edutainment center of horticulture and garden artistry with plants and trees from all over the world. Some of the highlights include:
- Flower Dome conservatory – 45m tall and 1.2 hectare (3-acres), this conservatory features plants from the cool, dry Mediterranean climate and flowers from Australia, Africa and South America
- Cloud Forest – at 0.8 hectare (2-acres), this conservatory mimics a cool, moist tropical mountain climate with more than 130’000 plants, including a “cloud mountain”
- Dragonfly Lake – a lake system that captures run-off from the gardens and uses aquatic plants as a natural eco-filt
Sustainable construction and environmental compatibility were the essential design aspects for the Garden’s architects (Wilkinson Eyre Architects and CPG Consultants). These included state-of- the-art sustainable energy and water usage solutions and green elements such as a bio-waste co-generation system, liquid desiccant system, automatic shading systems, photovoltaic panels, green roofs, rainwater harvesting and natural water filtration.
Exposed to seawater from the Singapore Straits and freshwater from the Marina Barrage reservoir, the concrete used in Gardens by the Bay needed to be completely protected against chloride ion ingress and high hydrostatic pressures, which are among the main causes of concrete deterioration of sea structures.
Penetron’s crystalline waterproofing technology, a Permeability Reducing Admixture for Hydrostatic conditions (PRAH) as outlined in ACI 212-3R-10 Chapter 15, was chosen by the design team to meet the demanding hydrostatic and corrosive environment.
PENETRON ADMIX was dosed into the fresh concrete during batching to ensure total protection against deterioration from water and water-borne chemicals (sulfates, chlorides, acids, etc.) and other corrosive agents that permeate concrete through micro-cracks, voids and capillaries. This batching allowed the contractor, Woh Hup, a significant time reduction in the project schedule, another reason why PENETRON was chosen for this application.
“PENETRON ADMIX is non-toxic without any harmful ingredients and is a certified Singapore Green Label product,” explains Jozef Van Beeck, Director, International Sales & Marketing of PENETRON International. “This certification was a key requirement for Gardens by the Bay.”
The civil and structural engineers, Atelier One and Meinhardt Infrastructure, designated PENETRON ADMIX for the concrete substructure (slabs and walls) of the Flower Dome and Cloud Forest conservatories due to their location in hydrostatic conditions. A total of 18,300m3 of concrete were treated with PENETRON ADMIX to provide a protected and durable concrete foundation for Singapore’s new landmarks.
The project’s construction joints were treated with PENEBAR SW-55 swellable-type waterstops. Once embedded in the concrete, PENEBAR expands upon contact with water and sealing the construction joint from within, protecting it effectively against all water ingress.
PENESEAL PRO was used as a concrete sealer for the above-grade structures - on 5,000m2 of concrete surface of the Cloud Mountain wall and on 1,875m2 of concrete surface of the Supertrees - to prevent water penetration and deterioration.
“To support the client’s environmental priorities for Gardens by the Bay, PENETRON offered an environmentally friendly solution to waterproof the concrete foundations,” adds Robert Revera, President and CEO of The PENETRON Group. “The ease of application and enhanced durability of the concrete will preserve Singapore’s new garden masterpiece for many years to come.”